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How to Secure Your Windows Computer and Protect Your Privacy -- with Free Software

An Easy Guide for the Windows User

By Howard Fosdick

Fosdick Consulting Inc.

© 2008 February 28 | Version 1.2

Download this information as a PDF.

Distribution: You may freely reproduce and distribute this guide however you like ­ but you may not change its contents in any way.
This product is distributed at no cost under the terms of the Open Publication License with License Option A --
"Distribution of modified versions of this document is prohibited without the explicit permission of the copyright holder."
Feedback: Please send recommendations for improving this guide to the author at email address "ContactFCI" at the domain name
"". Disclaimer: This paper is provided without warranty. Fosdick Consulting Inc. and the author accept no responsibility for
any use of the data contained herein. Trademarks: Al trademarks included in this document are the property of their respective owners.
About the Author: Howard Fosdick is an independent consultant who works hands-on with databases and operating systems. He's written
a couple hundred articles and several books. He's presented at conferences, founded software users groups, and invented concepts like
hype curves and open consulting.
Acknowledgments: Thank you to the reviewers without whose expert feedback this guide could not have been developed: Bill Backs,
Huw Collingbourne, Rich Kurtz, Scott Nemec, Priscilla Polk, Janet Rizner, Kate Robinson, and others who prefer anonymity. Thank you
also to the Association of PC Users (APCU), Better Software Association, BitWise Magazine, IBM Database Magazine, and UniForum.

Do you know that --

Windows secretly records al the web sites you've ever visited?

After you delete your Outlook emails and empty the Waste Basket, someone could still read your email?

After you delete a file and empty the Recycle Bin, the file stil exists?

Your computer might run software that spies on you?

Your computer might be a bot, a slave computer waiting to perform tasks assigned by a remote master?

The web sites you visit might be able to compile a complete dossier of your online activities?

Microsoft Word and Excel documents contain secret keys that uniquely identify you? They also collect
statistics tel ing anyone how long you spent working on them and when.
This guide explains these ­ and many other -- threats to your security and privacy when you use Windows
computers. It describes these concerns in simple, non-technical terms. The goal is to provide information
anyone can understand.
This guide also offers solutions: safe practices you can fol ow, and free programs you can install. Download
links appear for the free programs as they are cited.
No one can guarantee the security and privacy of your Windows computer. Achieving foolproof security
and privacy with Windows is difficult. Even most computer professionals don't have this expertise.
Instead, this guide addresses the security and privacy needs of most Windows users, most of the time. Follow
its recommendations and your chances of a security or privacy problem wil be minimal.

Since this guide leaves out technical details and obscure threats, it includes a detailed Appendix. Look
there first for deeper explanations and links to more information.
Why Security and Privacy Matter
Why should you care about making Windows secure and private? Once young "hackers" tried to breach
Windows security for thrills. But today penetrating Windows computers yields big money. So professional
criminals have moved in, including overseas gangs and organized crime.
Al intend to make money off you ­ or anyone else who does not know how to secure Windows. Security
threats are increasing exponentially.
This guide tel s you how to defend yourself against those trying to steal your passwords, personal data, and
financial information. It helps you secure your Windows system from outside manipulation or even destruction.
It also helps you deal with corporations and governments that breach Windows security and your privacy for
their own ends. You have privacy if only you determine when, how, and to whom your personal information is
communicated. Organizations try to gain advantage by eliminating your privacy. This guide helps you defend it.
The Threats
Windows security and privacy concerns fal into three categories --
1. How to defend your computer against outside penetration attempts
2. How Windows tracks your behavior ­ and how to stop it
3. How to protect your privacy when using the Internet
The first two threats are specific to Windows computers. The last one applies to the use of any kind of
computer. These three points comprise the outline to this guide.


1. How to Defend Against Penetration Attempts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1 Act Safely Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2 Install Self-Defense Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Intrusion Prevention
1.3 Keep Your Programs Up-to-Date! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4 Test Your Computer's Defenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.5 Peer-to-Peer Programs Can Be Risky. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.6 Don't Let Another User Compromise Your Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.7 Use Administrator Rights Sparingly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.8 Use Strong Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.9 Always Back Up Your Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.10 Encrypt Your Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.11 Reduce Browser Vulnerabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Will Your Browser Run Anybody's Program?
Internet Explorer Vulnerabilities
1.12 Wireless Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2. How Windows Tracks Your Behavior ­ and How to Stop It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.1 How to Securely Delete Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
How to Securely Delete Files
How to Securely Delete Email and Address Books
How to Securely Delete All Personal Data on Your Computer
2.2 The Registry Contains Personal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3 Windows Tracks All the Web Sites You've Ever Visited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.4 Windows Leaves Your Personal Information in its Temporary Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5 Your "Most-Recently Used" Lists Show What You're Working On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.6 Product Registration Information May be Hard to Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.7 File "Properties" Expose Personal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.8 Microsoft Embeds Secret Identifiers in Your Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.9 Chart of Tracking Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. How to Protect Your Privacy When Using the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.1 Limit the Personal Information You Give Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.2 Don't Let Web Sites Track You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.3 Email Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.4 Web Surfing Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.5 Search Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4. Wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5. Appendix ­ Further Information and Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


1. How to Defend Against Penetration Attempts
There are many reasons someone or some organization out in the Internet might want to penetrate your
Windows computer. Here are a few examples ­

To secretly instal software that steals your passwords or financial information

To enroll your computer as a bot that secretly sends out junk email or spam

To implant software that tracks your personal web surfing habits

To destroy programs or data on your PC
Your goals are to--

Prevent instal ation of malicious software or malware

Identify and eliminate any malware that does get instal ed

Prevent malware from sending information from your computer out into the web

Prevent any other secret penetration of your computer
1.1 Act Safely Online
Let's start with the basics. Your use of your computer -- your online behavior ­ significantly affects how easy it
is to penetrate your PC.

Practice safe web surfing. Handle your email safely. Fol ow these tips to reduce the chances that outsiders
can penetrate your computer:

Don't download free screensavers, wal paper, games, or toolbars unless you know they're safe.
These often come with embedded malware. If you just can't pass up freebies, download them to a
directory where you scan them with your anti-virus and anti-malware programs before using them.

Don't visit questionable web sites. Hacker sites, sexual y explicit sites, and sites that engage in
il egal activity like piracy of music, videos, or software are wel known for malware. You could get hit
by a drive-by -- a malicious program that runs just by virtue of your viewing a web page.

Don't open email or email attachments from questionable sources. These might instal malware on
your system. Dangerous email attachments often present themselves as games, interesting
pictures, electronic greeting cards, or invoices so that you wil open them. (If you get too much junk
email, reduce it with these free programs.)

Don't click on links provided in emails. These could direct you to a legitimate-looking but bogus web
site designed to steal your personal information. Companies that protect their customers don't
conduct business through embedded links in emails!

Before you enter your online account name and password into any web site, be sure the web page
is secure. The web page's address should start with the letters https (rather than http). Most
browsers display a closed lock icon at the bottom of the browser panel to indicate a secure web site

Don't give out your full name, address, phone number, or other personal information in chat rooms,
forums, on web forms, or in social networks. (Section 3 on "How to Protect Your Privacy When
Using the Internet" has more on this topic.)

The Appendix links to articles with more safety tips.
1.2 Install Self-Defense Software
To defend Windows, you need to instal software that protects against several kinds of threats. This section
describes the threats and the software that defends against each.

Some programs provide protection against multiple threats. But no single program protects you from al kinds
of threats!

Compare any protective software you already have instal ed to what I describe here. To cover any gaps, this
section recommends free software you can download and install. It provides download links for these free
Firewall ­ Firewal s are programs that prevent data from coming into or leaving from your computer
without your permission. Unsolicited data coming into your computer could be an attempt to
compromise it; unauthorized data leaving your computer may be an attempt to secretly steal your data
or spy on your activities.
Every Windows computer should run a firewal at al times when it is connected to the Internet.
I recommend downloading and instal ing a free firewal , such as ZoneAlarm, Comodo Firewal , Sygate
Personal Firewal ,
or Jetico Personal Firewal . ZoneAlarm is especial y easy to set up, since it is self-
configuring. Find other free firewal s along with a quick comparative review here.
Windows ME, 98, and 95 did not come with a firewal . XP and Vista do. However, the XP and Vista
firewal s have shortcomings.
The XP firewal s (there are actual y two versions) do not stop unauthorized outgoing data. This is
unacceptable because if malware somehow got instal ed on your computer, it could send data out
without you realizing it.
Vista's built-in firewal can stop unauthorized outbound data. But it does not do so by default. This how-
to article
shows that enabling this critical feature is not easy.
I recommend instal ing a free firewal whether or not you have a Microsoft firewal . (It doesn't hurt to run
two firewal s.) Since the procedures for configuring Microsoft's firewal s vary according to your
Windows version and service pack level, see the Appendix for how to configure them.
Anti-Virus ­ Viruses are programs that are instal ed on your computer without your knowledge or
permission. The damage they do ranges from acting as a nuisance and wasting your computer's
resources, al the way up to destroying your data or Windows itself.
Anti-virus programs help identify and eliminate viruses that get into your computer. Free anti-virus
programs include AVG Anti-Virus, avast! Anti-Virus Home Edition, and PC Tools Anti-Virus Free Edition.
If you don't already have an anti-virus scanner, download and install one of these, then run it regularly to
scan your disk for any viruses. You can schedule the program to run automatical y either through its
own built-in scheduling facility or through the Windows Scheduler.
Good anti-virus programs like these automatical y scan data as it downloads into your computer. This
includes emails you receive and any files you download.
Anti-Malware -- In addition to viruses, there are many other kinds of programs that try to secretly install
themselves on your computer. Generical y, they're cal ed malware. They include:

It spies on your behavior and sends this data to a remote computer
It targets you for advertisements
These scam their way into your computer
These take over administrator rights and can do anything to your PC
These secretly use your communication facilities

These record your keystrokes (including passwords) and send this
data to a remote computer
This turns your computer into a bot or zombie, ready to silently carry
out instructions sent from a remote server
Since no one program identifies and removes al kinds of malware, you need a couple in addition to your
anti-virus scanner. Free programs for this purpose include AVG Anti-Spyware, Ad-Aware 2007 Free,
Spybot Search and Destroy, and a-Squared Free Anti-Malware. I recommend running two anti-malware
programs on a regularly-scheduled basis.
Anti-Rootkit -- Rootkits are a particularly vicious form of malware. They take over the master or
Administrator user rights on your PC and therefore are very effective at hiding themselves.
Many of the anti-malware programs above provide some protection against rootkits. But sometimes a
specialized detection program is useful. Rootkit detectors often require technical expertise but I can
recommend two as easy-to-use, AVG Anti-Rootkit Free and Sophos Anti-Rootkit. Both require
Windows XP or 2000 or newer.
Intrusion Prevention ­ Intrusion detection programs alert you if some outside program tries to secretly
enter Windows by replacing a program on your computer. For example, an outside program might try to
replace part of Windows or alter a program such as Internet Explorer.
Free intrusion detection programs include WinPatrol, SpywareGuard, ThreatFire Free Edition, and
ProcessGuard Free. Instal one of them and it wil run constantly in the background on your computer,
detecting and preventing intrusions.
1.3 Keep Your Programs Up-to-Date!
Al anti-malware programs require frequent updating. This enables them to recognize new kinds of malware as
they are developed. The programs listed above automatical y check for updates and download and instal them
as needed. (Each has a panel where you can verify this feature.)
You must also keep Windows up-to-date. In Vista, the automatic feature for this purpose is cal ed Windows
It is on by default. You can manage it through the Control Panel | Security | Windows Update option.
As Microsoft explains, they have broadened Windows Update into a facility they cal Microsoft Update. The
latter auto-updates a broader range of Microsoft products than does Windows Update. For example, it updates
Microsoft Office. You can sign up for Microsoft Update at the Microsoft Update web site.
In XP and Windows 2000, the auto-update feature was usually referred to as Automatic Updates. Manage it
through Control Panel | Automatic Updates.
Beyond Windows, you must also keep the major applications on your computer up-to-date. Examples are
Adobe's Flash Player, Firefox, and RealPlayer. Most default to automatic updating. It's a good practice to
verify the auto-update setting right after you instal any new program.
Then you never need check it again.
If you don't know whether your system has al the required updates for your programs, run the free Secunia
Software Inspector
. It detects and reports on out-of-date programs and ensures all "bug fixes" are applied.
If you need to download software updates for many programs, The Software Patch al ows you to download them
al through one web site.

1.4 Test Your Computer's Defenses
You can test how wel your computer resists penetration attempts by running the free ShieldsUp! program.
ShieldsUp! tel s you about any security flaws it finds. It also displays the system information your computer
gives out to every web site you visit. Section 3 on "How to Protect Your Privacy When Using the Internet"
addresses this privacy concern.
Test whether your computer's firewall stops unauthorized outgoing data by downloading the free program called
1.5 Peer-to-Peer Programs Can Be Risky
Peer-to-peer programs share music, videos and software. Popular examples include BitTorrent, Morpheus,
Kazaa, Napster, and Gnutel a. Peer-to-peer (or P2P) networking makes it possible for you to easily download
files from any of the thousands of other personal computers in the network.
The problem is that by using peer-to-peer programs, you agree to al ow others to read files from your computer.
Be sure that only a single Folder on your computer is shared to the Internet, not your entire disk! Then, be very
careful about what you place into that shared Folder.
Some peer-to-peer programs use the lure of the free to implant adware or spyware on your computer. Other
P2P systems engage in theft because they "share" files il egally.
The popular PC Pitstop web site tested major P2P programs for bundled malware in July 2005 and here's what
they found ­
P2P Program:
Adware or Spyware Installed:

Bril iant Digital, Gator, Joltid, TopSearch
NavExcel Toolbar
WhenU SaveNow, WhenU Weather
PIB Toolbar, Huntbar Toolbar, NEO Toolbar
Ezula, Gator
Shareaza, WinMX, Emule,
LimeWire, BitTorrent, BitTornade
If you decide to instal any peer-to-peer program, determine if the P2P program comes with malware before you
install it.

You greatly increase your personal security by not getting involved in the il egal sharing of music, videos, and
software. File "sharing" in violation of copyright is theft. The Recording Industry Association of America has
sued over 20,000 people for it as of mid-2006.
1.6 Don't Let Another User Compromise Your Computer
Got kids in the house? A teen or younger child might violate the "safe surfing" rules above and you wouldn't
know it.... until you get blindsided by malware the next time you use your computer.
This article tel s about a couple whose tax returns and banking data ended up on the web after their kids used
P2P networking software the parents didn't even know was instal ed. A spouse or friend could cause you the
same grief.

If you are not the sole user of your computer -- or if you do not feel completely confident that your computer is
secure -- consider what personal information you store. Do you real y want to manage your credit cards, bank
accounts or mutual funds from your PC? Only if you know it's secure! (Read the agreements for online
financial services and you'll see that you are responsible for security breaches that compromise your accounts.)
Some families use two computers: one for the kids and a secure one for the adults. They use the less secure
computer for games and web surfing, and careful y restrict the use of the more secure machine. This two-
computer strategy is appealing because today you can buy a used computer for only a hundred dol ars.
An alternative is to share one computer among everyone but set up separate user ids with different access
(explained below). Ensure that only a single user id has the authority to make changes to Windows and
restrict its use.
Never use a public computer at a computer cafe or the library for online finances or other activities you must
keep secure.
1.7 Use Administrator Rights Sparingly
To instal programs or perform security-sensitive activities on a Windows computer requires administrator rights.
When you use administrator rights, any malware program you accidental y or unknowingly run has these rights --
and can do anything on your system.
In systems like Windows XP and Windows 2000, the built-in Administrator user id inherently has administrator
rights. You can also create other user ids to which you assign administrator rights.
Working ful -time with a user id that has administrator rights makes you vulnerable! In contrast, using an
account that does not have administrator rights gives you a great deal of protection. So create a new user id
without administrator rights and use it. Then use the Administrator id only when necessary.
Windows Vista introduces a new feature cal ed user account control that helps you avoid using administrator
rights except when required. This feature prompts you to enter a password when you want to perform any
action that requires administrator rights. While entering passwords may seem like a hassle, UAC is a big step
towards a more secure Windows. Here is Microsoft's introductory guide on this feature.
Early Windows versions ­ ME, 98, and 95 ­ don't have a system of access rights. Whatever user id you use has
the administrator powers. To keep these systems secure, al you can do is fol ow the other recommendations in
this guide very carefully.
1.8 Use Strong Passwords
Passwords are the front door into your computer ­ and any online accounts you have on the web. You need to:

Create strong passwords

Change them regularly

Use different passwords for different accounts
Strong passwords are random mixes of letters, numbers, and punctuation (if al owed) that contain eight or more
AlbqP_1793, pp30-Mow9, PPw9a3mc84
Weak passwords are composed of personal names or words you can find in the dictionary:

Pol y28, Bigdog, alphahouse, wisewoman2, PhoebeJane
If keeping track of different passwords for many different accounts strikes you as impractical (or drives you nuts!)
you might try a "password management" tool from any of the dozen free products listed here.
If you set up a home wireless network, be sure to assign the router a password!
1.9 Always Back Up Your Data
One day you turn on your computer and it won't start. Yikes! What now?
If you backed up your data, you won't lose it no matter what the problem is. Backing up data is simple. For
example, keep al your Word documents in a single Folder, then write that Folder to a plug-in USB memory stick
after you update the documents. Or, write out al your data Folders once a week to a writeable CD.
For the few minutes it takes to make a backup, you'l insure your data against a system meltdown. This also
protects you if malware corrupts or destroys what's on your disk drive.
If you didn't back up your data and you have a system problem, you can stil recover your data as long as the
disk drive still works and the data files are not corrupted. You could, for example, take the disk drive out of the
computer and place it into another Windows machine as its second drive. Then read your data -- and back it up!
If the problem is that Windows won't start up, the web offers tons of advice on how to fix and start Windows (see
the Appendix). Another option is to start the machine using a Linux operating system CD and use Linux to read
and save data from your Windows disk.
If the problem is that the disk drive itself fails, you'll need your data backup. If you didn't make one, your only
option is to remove the drive and send it to a service that uses forensics to recover data. This is expensive and
may or may not be able to restore your data. Learn the lesson from this guide rather than from experience ­
back up your data!
1.10 Encrypt Your Data
Even if you have locked your Windows system with a good password, anyone with physical access to your
computer can stil read the data!

One easy way to do this is simply to boot up the Linux operating system using a CD, then read the Windows files
with Linux. This circumvents the Windows password that otherwise protects the files.
Modern versions of Windows like Vista and XP include built-in encryption. Right-click on either a Folder or File
to see its Properties. The Properties' Advanced button al ows you to specify that al the files in the Folder or the
single File wil be automatical y encrypted and decrypted for you. This protects that data from being read even if
someone circumvents your Windows password. It is sufficient protection for most situations.
Alternatively, you might instal free encryption software like BestCrypt or many others.
If you encrypt your data, be sure you wil always be able to decrypt it! If the encryption is based on a key you
enter, you must remember the key. If the encryption is based on an encryption certificate, be sure to back up or
"export" the certificates, as described here. You might wish to keep unencrypted backups of your data on CD or
USB memory stick.
Laptop and notebook computers are most at risk to physical access by an outsider because they are most
frequently lost or stolen -- keep al data files your portable computer encrypted.


1.11 Reduce Browser Vulnerabilities
As the program you run to access the Internet, your web browser is either your first line of defense or a key
vulnerability in protecting your computer from Internet malware.
Will Your Browser Run Anybody's Program? - From a security standpoint, the worldwide web has a
basic design flaw ­ many web sites expect to be able to run any program they want on your personal
. You are expected to accept the risk of running their code! The risk stems from both
accidental program defects and purposeful y malicious code.
Some web sites require that you al ow their programs to run their code to get ful value from the web site.
Others do not. You can find whether the web sites you visit require programmability simply by turning it
off and visiting the site to see if it stil works properly.
Here are the keywords to look for in web browsers to turn off their programmability --


Active Scripting

(or Scripting)

.NET components
(or .NET Framework components)

(or Java VM)

Turn off the programmability of your browser by un-checking those keywords at these menu options --
How to Set Programmability:
Internet Explorer
Tools | Internet Options | Security | Internet Custom Level
Firefox *
Tools | Options | Content
Tools | Preferences | Advanced | Content
Edit | Advanced Preferences | JavaScript
Edit | Preferences | Advanced (Java) | Scripts and Plugins (JavaScript)

* Version 2 on
Internet Explorer Vulnerabilities -- The Internet Explorer browser has historical y been vulnerable to
malware. Free programs like SpywareBlaster and SpywareGuard help
prevent and fix these problems.
Tracking Internet Explorer's vulnerabilities is time-consuming because criminals continual y devise new
"IE attacks." If you use Internet Explorer, be sure you're using the latest version and that Windows'
automatic update feature is enabled so that downloads wil quickly fix any newly-discovered bug.

Some feel that IE versions 7 and 8 adequately address the security issues of earlier versions. I believe
that competing free browsers are safer. Firefox is popular with those who want a safe browser that
competes feature-for-feature with IE. K-Meleon couples safety with top performance if you don't need
al the bells and whistles of resource-consuming browsers like IE or Firefox. It runs very fast even on
older computers.

1.12 Wireless Risks
Wireless communication al ows you to use the Internet from your computer without connecting it to a modem by
a wire or cable. Sometimes cal ed Wi-Fi, wireless technology is very convenient because you can use your
laptop from anywhere there is a invisible Internet connection or hotspot. For example, you could use your
laptop and the Internet from a cafe, hotel, restaurant, or library hotspot.
But wireless presents security concerns. Most public hotspots are un-secured. Al your wireless transmissions
at the hotspot are sent in unencrypted "clear text" (except for information on web pages whose addresses begin
with https). Someone with a computer and the right software could scan and read what passes between your
computer and the Internet.
Don't use public hotspots for Internet communications you need to keep secure (like your online banking).
Many people set up a wireless home network. You create your own local hotspot so that you can use your
laptop anywhere in the house without a physical connection.
Be sure the wireless equipment you use supports either the 802.11 G or 802.11 N standards. These secure
wireless transmissions through WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) or WPA2 encryption.
Do not base a wireless home network on equipment that only supports the older 802.11 A or 802.11 B
These use an encryption technology, cal ed WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy), that is not secure.
You might inadvertently create a public hotspot! Freeloaders on your home network could reduce the Internet
performance you're paying for. Activities like il egal song downloads would likely be traced to you, not to the
guilty party you've unknowingly al owed to use your network.
When you set up your wireless home network, assign your system a unique name, tell it not to broadcast that
name, give it a tough new password, and turn on encryption. Specify that only certain computers can remotely
use the network through MAC address filtering. Turn off your router and modem when you're not using them.
Expert advice varies on how to best secure wireless networks, so see the Appendix for more detail.
2. How Windows Tracks Your Behavior ­ and How to Stop It
Are you aware that Windows tracks your behavior? It records all the web sites you ever visit, keeps track of all
the documents you've worked on recently, embeds personal information into every document you create, and
keeps Outlook email even if you tell Outlook to delete it. These are just a few examples of many.
This section first tel s how to securely delete your files, folders, and email so that no one can ever retrieve them.
Then it describes the many ways in which Windows tracks your behavior. In some cases you can turn off this
tracking. In most, your only option is to eliminate the tracking information after it has been collected.
2.1 How to Securely Delete Data
Let's start with how to permanently delete data from your computer.
How to Securely Delete Files -- When you delete a file in Windows, Windows only removes the
reference it uses to locate that file on disk. Even after you empty the Recycle Bin, the file still resides
on the disk.
It remains on the disk until some random time in the future when Windows re-uses this
"unused" disk space.

This means that someone might be able to read some of your "deleted" files. (You can use free
programs like Undelete+ and Free Undelete to recover deleted files that are stil on your disk.)
To securely delete files, you need to over-write them with zeroes or random data. Free programs that do
this include Eraser, BCWipe, and many others. After instal ing Eraser or BCWipe, you highlight a File or
Folder, right-click the mouse, then select Delete with Wiping or Erase from the drop-down menu. This
over-writes or securely deletes the data and so that it can never be read again.
Programs like Eraser and BCWipe also offer an option to over-write "al unused space" on a disk. This
securely deletes any files you previously deleted using Windows Delete.
How to Securely Delete Email and Address Books ­ Even after you delete your Outlook or Outlook
Express emails and empty the email Waste Basket, files containing your emails remain to be read by
someone later.
What if you want to permanently delete al your emails so no one could ever read them?
Whether this is possible depends on whether your computer is stand-alone or part of an organizational
In an organizational setting, emails may be stored on central servers in addition to -- or instead of -- your
personal computer. Many organizations store al the emails you ever send or receive on their servers
so that you can never delete them.
Here is a good discussion about whether you can real y delete old
emails in organizational settings.
If you have a stand-alone PC, emails are stored on your computer's hard disk. To securely erase emails
residing on your computer, locate the Outlook or Outlook Express files that contain your emails. Then
use a secure-erase tool like Eraser or BCWipe to permanently destroy them. You can do the same with
your Windows address book.
The files you need to securely erase may be marked as hidden files within Windows. To work with
hidden files, you first need to make them visible. Checkmark Show Hidden Files and Folders under
Start | Settings | Control Panel | Folder Options | View.
Now, search for file names having these extensions (ending characters) by using Windows' Search or
Find facility --
Outlook emails, contacts, appointments, tasks, notes, and journal entries
.dbx or .mbx
Outlook Express emails
Windows address book file
Note that Outlook stores much other information in the same file along with your obsolete emails. You
can either erase al that data along with your emails by securely deleting the file, or, fol ow this procedure
to securely delete the email while retaining the other information.
For Outlook Express emails and Windows address books, just securely delete the files with the given
extensions and you're done.
How to Securely Delete All Personal Data on Your Computer ­ How can you securely delete al your
personal information on an old computer before giving it away or disposing of it? This is difficult to
achieve if you wish to preserve Windows and its installed programs.
It takes a lot of time and there is
no single tool that performs this function.
The easiest solution is to overwrite the entire hard disk. This destroys all your personal information,
wherever Windows hides it. Unfortunately it also destroys Windows itself and al its instal ed programs.

Be sure to copy whatever data you want to keep to another computer or storage medium first!
Several free programs securely overwrite your entire disk, such as Darik's Boot and Nuke. The only
possible way to recover data after running such programs is expensive physical analysis of the disk
media, which may not be successful. Over-writing a disk is secure deletion for normal computer use.
2.2 The Registry Contains Personal Data
Windows keeps a central database of information crucial to its operations cal ed the Registry. Our interest in
the Registry is that it stores your personal information. Examples include the information you enter when you
register Windows and Office products like Word and Excel, lists of web sites you have visited, login profiles
required for using various applications, and much more.
Upcoming sections discuss your personal information in the Registry how you can remove it. For now, let's just
introduce a few useful Registry facts --
The Registry is a large, complicated database (about which you can find tons of material on the
The Registry consists of thousands of individual entries. Each entry consists of two parts, a key
and a value. Each value is the setting for its associated key.
The Registry organizes the entries into hierarchies.
This guide tel s how to change or remove your personal information in the Registry by running free
programs, but it doesn't cover how to edit the Registry yourself ­ a technical topic beyond the scope
of this paper.
Making a mistake while editing the Registry could damage Windows, so you should only edit it if you
feel wel qualified to do so. Always make a backup before editing the Registry.
2.3 Windows Tracks All the Web Sites You've Ever Visited
Windows keeps a list of al the web sites you've ever visited. You can tel Internet Explorer to eliminate this list
through the IE selection Tools | Internet Options | Clear History. But Windows stil retains it!
To view the web site history Windows retains, download and run a free program like Index Dat Spy.
Windows records your web surfing history in a file named index.dat. (There are actually several index.dat files
on your computer ... I'l describe what the others track later.)
The index.dat files are special ­ you can not delete them or Windows will not start. Since Windows prevents
you from changing or deleting these files, you need to run a free program to erase your web site history.
If you use Internet Explorer and have the default Auto-Complete feature turned on, your web surfing history is
also kept in a second location -- in the Windows Registry. (You'l see web sites you've visited listed under the
Registry key TypedURLs.)
If you turn off Auto-Complete, Internet Explorer no longer saves your web history in the Registry. To turn off
Auto-complete, go into Internet Explorer, then select Tools | Internet Options | Content | AutoComplete and
un-check the box for auto-complete of Web addresses.
Turning off Auto-Complete does not stop Windows from tracking your web site history in its index.dat files.
Several free programs securely erase your web site history from both the Registry and the index.dat files.
Among them are CCleaner, Free Internet Windows Washer, CleanUp!, and ScrubXP, The shareware programs
PurgeIE and PurgeFox are also popular. I've found CCleaner to be both thorough and easy-to-use.

2.4 Windows Leaves Your Personal Information in its Temporary Files
Windows, web browsers, and other programs leave a ton of temporary files on your computer. Some hold web
pages you've recently viewed, so that if you go back to that web page, you'l be able to view it quickly from disk
instead of downloading it again from the web. Other files are used by Windows and its applications as
temporary work areas. Stil others are used to log program actions or store debugging information.
These temporary files sometimes contain personal information. For example, web page caches contain copies
of web forms into which you've entered passwords or your credit card number. You may not wish to disclose
the web pages, videos, images, audio files, and downloaded programs you've viewed lately.
The trouble is that these temporary files are not erased after use. Some remain until the system needs that
disk space for another purpose. Others hang around forever, unless you know to clean them.
The free programs above that erase your web history also erase these temporary files and cache areas. Find
more free programs here and a review of the best commercial programs here.
2.5 Your "Most Recently Used" Lists Show What You're Working On
Windows tracks the documents you've recently worked with through its Most Recently Used or MRU lists.
MRU lists are kept by Microsoft Office products like Word and Excel, as wel as applications from other vendors.
Window's Start | Documents list also shows documents you have recently worked with.
Products keep MRU lists for your convenience. They help you recal and quickly open documents you're
currently working on.
These lists also offer the perfect tracking tool for anyone who wants to find out what you've been doing on your
computer. They provide a ready-made behavioral profile. Windows and its applications keep many more MRU
items than you might expect ­ thousands of them, if you have never cleared the lists.
Free program MRU Blaster cleans out these lists. Other free programs like Ad-Aware 2007 Free, CCleaner,
and Free Internet Windows Washer erase many of the lists.
Run an MRU cleaner whenever you like. Remember that after you clean the lists, the "quick picks" of your
recent documents wil not appear in Word, Excel, or other products.
2.6 Product Registration Information May Be Hard to Change
When you register Windows, Microsoft Office, or other products, that information is stored in the Windows
Registry. It can be read from there by any program or person who reads the Registry.
Registering a software product shows your legal ownership of the product and may be required to receive
product support and updates. However, changing or eliminating the personal registration information later might
be difficult. Some products have an Options or User Information panel in the program where you can easily
change the product registration. But most require you to either directly edit the Windows Registry or even de-
install the product to change or remove the personal registration data.
Consider careful y what you enter into any product's registration panel when instal ing it. You may not be able to
change it later. If you know you won't need vendor support or updates and the product license permits it, you
could enter blank registration information.

2.7 File "Properties" Expose Personal Data
Right-click on any Microsoft Word, Excel, or Powerpoint file, and select Properties from the pop-up menu. You'l
see a tabbed set of panels that keep information about the file. (For some versions of Microsoft Office, you need
to click the Advanced button to expose al the information.) You'l see that Microsoft Office saves information
about the file such as:
Who created it
The company at which it was created
The name of the computer on which it was created
A list of al who have edited it
When it was created and when it was last saved
The number of times it has been edited
Total editing time
A hidden revision log
Recent links used in the file
Various statistics about the size of the file, the word count, etc
The information varies according to the type of file you view (Word, Excel, or Powerpoint) and the version of
Microsoft Office that was used to create and edit the file. You can't see everything Office saves in the
Properties panel ­ some of it remains hidden from your view.

You can change some of the Properties information by right-clicking on the file name, then editing it. Or alter it
while editing the document by selecting Edit | Properties.
Other data is col ected for you whether you want it or not, and you can not change it.
Should you care? It depends on whether it matters if anyone sees this information. In most cases it doesn't.
But sometimes this data is private and its exposure matters.
Just ask former U.K. Prime Minister Tony Blair. He took Britain to war against Iraq in 2003 based on the
contents of what he presented as his government's authoritative Iraq Dossier. But this Word file's properties
exposed the high-powered dossier as the work of an American graduate student, not a team of British
government experts. A political firestorm ensued.
Microsoft offers manual procedures here and here that minimize Office files' hidden information. But these are
too cumbersome to be useful. Microsoft eventually developed a free tool to cleanse Office documents created
with Office 2002 SP2 or later. But restrictions limit its value.
The free tool Doc Scrubber is an alternative for cleansing the Properties metadata from Word files.
Whichever tool you use, you must run it as your last action before you distribute your finished Office document.
Cleansing Microsoft Office files is inconvenient and it's difficult to remember to do it. Those who require "clean"
office documents are advised to use the free office suite that competes with Office, cal ed

The OpenOffice suite does not require personal y-identifying Registration information and it gives you control
over the Properties information. It reads and writes Microsoft Office file formats. (I edited this document
interchangeably with OpenOffice and several different versions of Microsoft Word, then created the final PDF file
using OpenOffice.) Read reviews of OpenOffice here, here, here and here.

2.8 Microsoft Embeds Secret Identifiers in Your Documents
Windows, Windows Media Player, Internet Explorer, and other Microsoft applications contain a number that
identifies the software called the Global y Unique Identifier or GUID.
Microsoft Office embeds the GUID in every document you create.
The GUID could be used to trace the documents you create back to your computer and copy of Microsoft Office.
It could even theoretical y be used to identify you when you surf the web.
The free program ID-Blaster Plus can randomize (change) the GUIDs embedded in Windows, Internet Explorer,
and Windows Media player. The free program Doc Scrubber erases GUIDs contained in a single Word
document or all the Word documents in a Folder.
If you're concerned about secret identifiers embedded in your Office documents, use the OpenOffice suite
instead. This compatible alternative to Microsoft Office doesn't embed GUIDs in your documents nor does it
require personal registration and Properties information.
2.9 Chart of Tracking Technologies
I've discussed the major areas in which Windows and other Microsoft products track your computer use. In
most cases you can not turn off this tracking. But the free programs I've described wil delete the tracking
The chart below summarizes where and how Windows and other Microsoft products track your behavior. Many
items apply only to specific software versions.
A few functions report your behavior back to Microsoft. Examples include when Windows Media Player sent
your personal audio and video play lists to Microsoft
and the company's attempts to use the Internet to remotely
cripple Windows instal s it considers il egal.
--- Where Windows Tracks Your Behavior ---
Application Logs
Records on how often you run various programs
Clipboard Data
Data you've copied/pasted is in this memory area
Common Dialog History
Lists Windows "dialogs" with which you've interacted
Empty Directory Entries
File pointers unused by Windows but stil usable by those with special software
Error Reporting Services
Reports Windows or Microsoft Office errors back to Microsoft
File Slack Space
"Unused" parts of file clusters on disk that may contain old data
File Properties
Office document Properties contain your personal editing information and more
Find/Search History
Lists all your Find or Search queries (used by Windows auto-complete)
Embedded secret codes that link Office documents back to your computer
Hotfix Unistallers
Temporary files left for un-doing Windows updates
IIS Log files
Logged actions for Microsoft's IIS web server
Index.dat Files
Secret files that list all web sites you visit and other data
Infection reporting
Microsoft's Malicious Software Removal Tool reports infections to Microsoft
Last user login
Tracks the last user login to Windows
Microsoft Office History
MRU lists for Office products like Word, Excel, Powerpoint, Access, and Photo Editor
Open/Save History
List of documents or files for these actions
Recently Opened Doc. List MRU list accessible off Start | Documents
Recycle Bin
Deleted files remain accessible here
Registration of MS Office
Registration information is kept in the product Options, Splash panels, and Registry
Registration for Windows
Registration information is kept in the Registry
Registry Backups
Registry backups may contain personal data you may have edited out of the Registry
Registry Fragment Files
Deleted or obsolete data in the Registry that remains there
Registry Streams
History of Explorer settings
Remote Help
Al ows remote access to your computer for Help
Run History
Lists all programs you have run through Windows Run box
Scan Disk Files
Files output from SCANDISK (may contain valid data in *.chk files)

Start-Menu Click History Dates and Times of all mouse clicks you make for the Start Menu
Start-Menu Order History Records historical ordering of Start Menu items
Swap File
Parts of memory written to disk
Temporary Files
Temporary files used during program installation or execution
Time synchronization service Synchronizes your computer clock by remote Internet verification
User Assist History
Most used programs on the Start Menu
Windows Authentication
Identifies Windows license validity to Microsoft
Windows log files
Trace results of Windows actions and installs
Windows Media Player content Automatically downloads content-licenses through the Internet
Windows Media Player History Lists the Most Recently Used (MRU) files for Windows Media Player
Windows Media Player metadata Automatically retrieves metadata for audio CDs through the Internet
Windows Media Player Playlist Your Windows Media Player play lists
Windows Media Player statistics Sends your Windows Media Player usage statistics to Microsoft
--- Where Internet Explorer Tracks Your Behavior ---
Auto-complete form history
Everything you type into web site forms (inc. passwords & personal information)
Auto-complete for passwords Convenient but less secure
Data web sites store on your computer (sometimes used to track your surfing habits)
Downloaded files
Files you download while using the Internet
Web sites you list as "favorites" in your browser
Information saved or cached by third-party software that "plugs into" Internet Explorer
Searches are retained by both IE and search engines
Temporary files (cache)
Web pages the browser stores on disk
Web site error logs
Errors encountered during web site retrieval
Web sites visited
Al the web sites you have ever visited are stored in the Registry and index.dat files
This comparative review rates ten commercial products versus many of the above functions.
3. How to Protect Your Privacy When Using the Internet
Privacy is the ability to control when, how, and to whom your personal information is given. Privacy is power.
Losing your privacy means losing personal power.
This section offers tips and technical advice to help you protect your privacy when using the Internet. It applies
whether you use Windows or some other operating system, like Linux or Apple's Mac OS.
Web privacy is a fast-moving area in which technologies and laws are in flux. This guide can no more guarantee
you absolute privacy than it can guarantee you a completely secure Windows. But if you fol ow our tips you'l
minimize your privacy exposure.
3.1 Limit the Personal Information You Give Out
Before entering personal information into a web site form, a social network, or a forum, read the site's Privacy
and Terms of Use. If they're legalistic and hard-to-read, chances are they have more to do with
harvesting your personal data than protecting it.
Many agreements are written so that they can be changed at any time. This makes any assurance of protection
for your personal data worthless because the web site could simply change the agreement after you've provided
the information. Some agreements even include fine print by which you agree to the instal ation of malware on
your computer!

Few privacy policies guarantee that information wil be destroyed as it ages. Once given out, information tends
to live forever.
Few privacy policies give you any legal rights if your information is lost or stolen. In 2007 alone,
over 162 mil ion personal records were reported lost or stolen in the United States. (Yet it remains legal for
companies to buy and sel your social security number and personal data.)

Once you post personal information on the web, you lose control over how that information is used. Changes to
the "context" in which that data is used can harm you.
An example is the information students enter into social web sites like MySpace or Facebook for their friends'
amusement, only to find it resurfacing later to harm their employment opportunities or their careers. Both sites
offer privacy controls that easily al ow individuals to avoid such consequences -- but most users don't apply

The sel ing of personal data is a multibillion dol ar, largely-unregulated business in the United States. It's an
entire industry cal ed information brokering. People who give out their personal data expose themselves to
manipulation or worse.
Even the U.S. government is researching the harvesting of personal data from social networking sites for public
surveil ance. And why not? People voluntarily post the information.
Fans of social networking wil consider these cautions anachronistic. Please read how people expose
themselves to manipulation or harm by posting personal data, found in authoritative books such as The Digital

erson, The Soft Cage, or The Future of Reputation: Gossip, Rumor and Privacy on the Internet.
We need government regulation to enforce minimal rights for social network users, much the way we have
consumer-protection legislation for credit cards. Meanwhile, protect yourself by educating yourself.
Tiny bits of information can be col ected and compiled by web computers into comprehensive profiles. If an
organization can col ect enough smal bits of information ­ for example, just the names of al the web sites you
visit -- they can eventual y develop a complete picture of who you are, what you do, how you live, and what you
Privacy is power. You give away your personal power when you give out personal information. You assume
risk you can not measure at the time you assume it.
3.2 Don't Let Web Sites Track You
Cookies are smal files that web sites store on your computer's disk. They allow web sites to store information
about your interaction with them. For example, they might store the data required for you to purchase items
across the several web pages this involves.
However, cookies ­ original y called tracking cookies ­ can also be used to track your movement across the
web. Depending on the software using them, this data could be used to create a detailed record of your
behavior as you surf. The resulting profile might be used for innocuous purposes, such as targeted marketing,
or for malicious reasons, like spying.
Most browsers accept cookies by default. To retain your privacy, set the browser not to accept any cookies
other than exceptions you specify. Then only web sites you approve can set cookies on your computer. A few
web sites won't let you interact with them unless you accept their cookies -- but most will.
You can also set most browsers to automatical y delete al cookies when you exit. This al ows web sites to set
the cookies required for transactions like purchasing through the web but prevents tracking you across sessions.
To manage cookie settings in your browser, access these panels:
To turn cookies on or off ­
Internet Explorer
Tools | Internet Options | Privacy | Advanced
Firefox (version 2 on)
Tools | Options | Privacy | Cookies
Tools | Quick Preferences | Enable Cookies
Tools | Privacy | Block Cookies

Edit | Preferences | Privacy & Security | Cookies
To al ow specific web sites to set cookies ­
Internet Explorer
Tools | Internet Options | Privacy | Edit
Tools | Options | Privacy | Cookies | Exceptions
Tools | Preferences | Advanced | Cookies | Manage cookies
Edit | Preferences | Privacy
Tools | Cookie Manager
To "clear" (erase) all cookies currently on your computer for the specified browser ­
Internet Explorer
Tools | Internet Options | General | Delete Cookies
Tools | Clear Private Data
Tools | Preferences | Advanced | Cookies
Tools | Privacy | Clear Cookies
Tools | Cookie Manager | Manage Stored Cookies | Remove Al Cookies
To automatical y clear al cookies whenever you exit the browser ­
Internet Explorer
Not available
Tools | Options | Privacy | Cookies | Settings...
Tools | Preferences | Advanced | Cookies
Tools | Privacy | Settings...
Not available
CookieCentral has more information about cookies and how to manage them. Other tracking mechanisms
include web bugs, Flash cookies, third-party local shared objects. These are less common than cookies and
rather technical so fol ow the links and see the Appendix if they concern you.
3.3 Email Privacy
Sending an email over the Internet is like sending a postcard through the mail. Anyone with the ability to
intercept it can read it. There is evidence that the United States government either scans or compiles data
about every email sent in the country.

You can keep the contents of your personal communications private by encrypting your email. This web page
provides information and free downloads. It also lists programs that will encrypt your online interactive Chat.
This article il ustrates how to set up secure email step by step.
The trouble with encrypted email is that both the sender and the recipient must participate. It's impractical to
send encrypted email to people you don't know. Or to anyone using a different encryption system.
The major email programs could easily support standardized, universal y-compatible encryption in their clients --
but don't.

Remember that emails are often the basis for phishing scams ­ attempts to get you to reveal your personal
information for nefarious purposes. Don't respond to email that may not be from a legitimate source. Don't
even open it.
Examples include claims you've won the lottery, pleas for help in handling large sums of money,
sales pitches for outrageous deals, and the like.
Email may also be spoofed ­ masquerading as from a legitimate source when it is not. Examples are emails
that ask you to click on a link to update your credit card account or those that ask for account information or
Legitimate businesses are well aware of criminal misuse of email and don't conduct serious business
transactions through mass emailings!


Many people use two email addresses to avoid spam and retain their privacy. They use one account as a "junk"
email address for fil ing out web site forms, joining forums, and the like. This email address doesn't disclose the
person's identity and it collects the spam. They reserve a second email account for personal communications.
They never give this one out except to personal friends, so it remains spam-free.
3.4 Web Surfing Privacy
If you tested your computer as suggested earlier using ShieldsUp!, you saw that it gives out information to every
web site you visit. This data includes your Internet protocol address, operating system, browser version, and
Your Internet protocol address or IP address is a unique identifier assigned to your computer when you access
the Internet. Web sites can use it to track you. Your Internet Service Provider or ISP assigns your computer its
IP address using one of several different techniques. How traceable you are on the web varies according to the
technique your ISP employs along with several other factors, such as whether you al ow web sites to set cookies
and whether your computer is compromised by malware.
One way to mask who you are when web surfing is to change your IP address. Anonymizing services hide your
IP address and location from the web sites you visit by stripping it out as your data passes through them on the
way to your destination web site. Anonymizers help hide your identity and prevent web sites from tracking you
but they are not a perfect privacy solution (because the anonymizer itself could be compromised). is a very popular free anonymizing service. Find other free services here and here.
A more robust approach to anonymity is offered by free software from JAP and TOR. Both route your data
through intermediary servers cal ed proxies so that the destination web site can't identify you. Your data is
encrypted in transit, so it can not be intercepted or read by anyone who scans passing data.
Services like JAP and TOR present two downsides. First, your data is sent through intermediary computers on
the way to its destination, so response time slows. Whether you stil find it acceptable depends on many
factors; the best way to find out is simply to try the software for yourself.
These systems still leave you exposed to privacy violations by your Internet Service Provider. Your ISP is the
your computer's entry point into the Internet, so your ISP can track al your actions online.
For this reason, when the Bush administration decided to monitor American citizens through the Internet, they
proposed legislation that would force all ISPs to keep two years of data about all their customers' activities.
The government's current web surveil ance program made it necessary for major ISPs like AT&T/Yahoo to
change its privacy policy in June 2006 to say that AT&T ­ not its customers ­ owns al the customers' Internet
and can use them however it likes. Repeated congressional proposals to immunize ISPs from all legal
challenges only make sense if the ISPs col uded with the government in il egally monitoring Internet activities.
3.5 Search Privacy
Web sites that help you search the web are cal ed search engines. Popular search engines like Google,
Yahoo!, and MSN Search retain records of al your web searches.
Individual y, the keywords you type into
search engines show little. But aggregated, they may expose your identity. They may also expose your
innermost thoughts ­ or be misinterpreted as doing so.

Here's an example. Say the search engine captures you entering this list of searches ­

kil wife
how to kill wife
kil ing with untraceable substance
kil with unknown substance
Someone might interpret these searches as indicating that you should be reported to the authorities because
you're planning a murder. But what if you were simply doing research for that murder mystery you always
wanted to write? You can see need for search privacy. Do you have it?
The federal government has demanded search records from major search engines like Google, AOL, Yahoo,
and MSN. While the government claims these requests are to combat sexual predators, most analysts believe
they are for public surveillance and data mining.
America Online (AOL) accidental y posted online 20 mil ion personal queries from over 650,000 users. The data
was immediately gobbled up and saved in other web servers. Although AOL apologized and quickly took down
their posting, this data will probably remain available forever somewhere. Some people can be identified by
their "anonymous" searches
and have been harmed as a result of this violation of their privacy.
The AOL incident is a wake-up cal to those who don't understand how smal pieces of information about people
can be col ected by Internet servers, then compiled into revealing dossiers about our individual behaviors.
principle doesn't just apply to search engines. It extends to the web sites you visit, the books you buy online, the
comments you enter into forums, the political web sites you read, and al your other web activities.
The AOL debacle demonstrates that web activities many assume to be anonymous can sometimes be traceable
to specific individuals
The Electronic Frontier Foundation's excel ent white paper "Six Tips to Protect Your Search Privacy" offers these
recommendations to ensure your search privacy --

Don't include words in your searches that identify you personal y (such as your name or social security

Don't use your ISP's search engine (since they know who you are)

Don't "log in" to search engine web sites

Don't let the search engine set cookies

Don't use the same IP address all the time

Use anonymizers like JAP or TOR to thwart traceability
4. Wisdom
If you use Windows, Microsoft Office, and Internet Explorer, you need to be aware of how these products could
compromise your security and privacy. You can minimize these issues by fol owing this guide's
Anyone can achieve sufficient security and privacy when using Windows. But you must follow safe practices
and download and instal a number of programs.
Your privacy is not a design goal of Windows. It is up to you to make Windows secure and private.

Appendix: Further Information and Links
This appendix provides further information for each section of this guide. It includes links to other sources including articles and web sites.
You can download all the free software mentioned in this guide from these web sites --

he Free Country
(start here)

ajor Geeks
(start here)

(start here)

ech Support Alert
(gives recommendations on the best free software for every purpose)
Security is the ability to keep your Windows system free of outside interference, while privacy is your ability to determine when, how, to who,
and to what extent information about you is communicated.
This article and this one document how professional criminals have moved into penetrating Windows systems and how profitable this has
become. This web site gives statistics on the exponential increase in malware.
This New Yorker article offers statistics on the increase in spam and other malware. Microsoft's own statistics profiling the kinds and
occurrences of malware threats are in summarized in this Washington Post article and also here. This forum discussion links to several
articles with statistics summarizing the costs and spread of computer malware. This article looks at the increasing threat from the corporate
1. How to Defend Against Penetration Attempts
1.1 Act Safely Online

Among the many good articles offering online safety tips are this overview, this introductory one from BBC, this one at PCPitStop, and this
one for teens,

1.2 Install Self-Defense Software
-- Find good introductions to the kinds of threats you face at PC Pitstop and at Road
Runner Security and Abuse Control
For those wanting technical details, WindowsSecrets consistently uncovers security and privacy vulnerabilities in Microsoft products, while
WindowsITPro does a good job of analyzing flaws as they are found. Security Convergence Journal is useful from an operating-system
neutral standpoint.
Firewall ­ The Windows Vista, Windows XP SP2, and Windows XP / XP SP1 firewalls are all configured differently. To find which version
of Windows you are running, right-click on My Computer and select Properties.
To configure the firewall for Windows Vista, see this Microsoft article. The Vista firewall is "enabled" (turned on) by default, but its ability to
stop rogue outbound data is off by default. You definitely want to enable this. This article describes how.
To configure the firewall for Windows XP SP2, see this Microsoft article. It also tells how the XP XSP2 firewall differs from the original XP
and XP SP1 firewall, and briefly tells how to configure the original XP and XP SP1 firewalls.
To configure the firewall for Windows XP and Windows XP SP1, see this Microsoft article. The firewall is "disabled" (turned off) by default.
This is the original Windows firewall, which was called Internet Connection Firewall (ICF).

"Every computer should run a firewall at all times when connected to the Internet" ­ I have personally witnessed situations where
corporate firewalls did not protect PCs, so I believe this statement applies even to computers within company firewalls and situations where
you have a hardware firewall.
Anti-Virus -- Read Wikipedia's anti-virus page and TheFreeCountry's list and summary of free anti-virus programs for a good
understanding of viruses and how to protect against them.
Anti-Malware -- Here's Wikipedia's overview article on malware. Read TheFreeCountry's descriptions of free anti-malware products here
for a good idea of the threats out there and how to protect against them. Here's a good list of shareware programs for cleaning Windows.
This article gives a good introduction to the growing threat posed by botnets.
Anti-Rootkit -- I debated whether to include this as a separate section, since the other anti-malware tools will protect most users
adequately. Plus most anti-rootkit tools are either require a good bit of technical expertise to use or are still in beta at the time of writing. But

ultimately this is an important threat area that is poised for growth so I decided a separate explanation is necessary.
This InformationWeek article reviews and compares six rootkit detectors, including both free and commercial products.
Intrusion Prevention ­ See Wikipedia for a good overview and TheFreeCountry's list and summaries of free programs for a good
understanding of this area.
1.3 Keep Your Programs Up-to-Date!
Here are statistics on how Windows users often don't patch important applications and why this is a problem.
This Wikipedia article gives good background on the evolution of Microsoft's automatic update facilities.
This Microsoft article describes Windows Update and Microsoft Update and their differences.
The original Windows Update web site is here.
The Microsoft Update Catalog has a searchable interface and gives you more control over the update process.
Here's a list of free alternatives to Microsoft's Windows Update.
1.4 Test Your Computer's Defenses
This commercial site and this Wikipedia article offer good background on penetration testing.
There are several excellent security-testing programs I exclude here since they require expertise to use and interpret results. Among them
are Microsoft's Baseline Security Analyzer (also downloadable from independent sites like File Hippo here) and the Belarc Advisor.
1.5 Peer-to-Peer Programs Can Be Risky
For quick overviews of P2P dangers, read this article, this one, and this.
ere's a good overview at
the R
ed Tape Chronicles.
Here's a good article on P2P for parents whose kids use the programs.
Here's a quick corporate guide on P2P.
"The RIAA has sued over 20,000 people for file sharing as of July 2006" ­ this figure comes from an Electronic Frontier Foundation's
comprehensive report on the subject.
1.6 Don't Let Another User Compromise Your Computer
I've personally seen cases of shared "family computers" where young people install games, P2P programs, and other "malware catchers,"
while the parents use the same computer for their banking and mutual fund accounts. ID theft resulted. If you cannot ensure that everyone
who uses the computer conforms to the recommendations for safe surfing, don't use that computer for important personal data. One
solution is to buy two computers. One wil be the kids' game computer and the other a password-protected, data-encrypted parents'
computer. I've even met individuals who have two computers, one for wild surfing, the other for their secure accounts (banking and online
finance). A used Pentium III is perfectly adequate for surfing and general purpose software. They cost less than $100.
1.7 Use Administrator Rights Sparingly
This article estimates that 70% to 80% of security threats can be thwarted by using accounts that do not have administrator rights. Some
organizations enhance PC security by "locking down" user access and denying them use of administrator rights. This is not always
welcomed by the users because they sometimes require administrator rights to do their jobs. Vista's User Account Control feature tries to
resolve this controversy and satisfy the legitimate needs of both parties.
Read Microsoft's User Account Control guides here and here. This article gives links to a core set of UAC articles from Microsoft and other
sources. Vista's built-in Administrator user id does not have administrator rights until you enter your password, as prompted by UAC.
Windows consumer versions that pre-date Windows XP -- ME, 98, and 95 -- do not have administrator rights or the Administrator user id.
Al user ids effectively have "administrator rights" on these systems.
1.8 Use Strong Passwords
More advice on how to create good passwords can be found here and here. Here's what can happen if you neglect to assign a password to
your router.
1.9 Always Back Up Your Data
Microsoft has several useful web pages on how to backup your data here. This site offers plenty of good backup advice, free software, a

discussion forum, and more.
If your computer won't start due to a software problem, there are many sources on the web to help. This Microsoft article helps resolve Vista
startup problems, while this one covers how to create startup disks for all earlier Windows versions. If you need a boot disk for any version
of Windows, this site provides them. This article tells about how to start Windows in Safe Mode, which often works with computers that won't
start otherwise.
1.10 Encrypt Your Data
Web pages on encryption tools at the Free Country and tell a lot more about this topic and offer many more free programs.
Data encryption techniques are complicated, as this article and this one in Wikipedia attest. I elected to keep this section simple and
practical by avoiding the technical aspects of data encryption.
Here is an excellent series of articles on built-in encryption for Windows Vista and XP.

For volume-level encryption, the Ultimate and Enterprise versions of Vista provide a new feature called BitLocker. This article tells you
everything you need to know about it. This article and this one explore some of the advantages and downsides of BitLocker encryption.
Given that it's presently restricted to the Ultimate and Enterprise versions of Vista, BitLocker is of little relevance to Windows desktop and
laptop consumers.
1.11 Reduce Browser Vulnerabilities
Will Your Browser Run Anybody's Program?
­ I've simplified in saying browsers will run "any program" web sites push at them but this is
a reasonable assumption for non-technical readers. I've also simplified by excluding discussion of the technologies involved and merely list
the terms non-technical readers need to know to disable their browsers' programmability.
Here's an ancient but easily understood explanation of ActiveX and Java security issues that stil has value even today.
Learn more about the uses and perils of Active Scripting here and here, of ActiveX here, here, here, and here, and of JavaScript here and
here. Googling on these terms turns up many more explanations of security vulnerabilities from both the user and developer perspectives.
Internet Explorer Vulnerabilities ­ It is not my intent to disparage Internet Explorer -- this guide merely reflects consensus opinion in
stating that the browser has historically been vulnerable to exploits. If you disagree please perform a web search on phrases like "Internet
Explorer security defect" or "Internet Explorer insecurity" to read the evidence. Or visit the Secunia web site, which publishes product
security alerts and bug reports.
This article describes the threat of IE browser hijacking. Other exploits used against Internet Explorer include code execution
, address bar spoofing, multimedia component bugs, cross-browser attacks, encrypted code bypass, and others.
Sound computer science principles can be applied to address the security defects of traditional browser design. Examples include virtual
and sand-boxing. These are clearly superior methods to security than "browser-patching." But explaining
them would be technical and they are not yet widely used on Windows computers, so they are out-of-scope to this guide.
1.12 Wireless Risks
This web site lists many articles on wireless security. This article at Microsoft tells you how to make an existing 802.11 B home network as
secure as possible. I strongly recommend upgrading any 802.11 B home network to 802.11 G. See this article, this one, and this one for
tips on setting up a secure home wireless network. Use MAC address filtering if your equipment supports it to limit access to your wireless
network to specific computers. Some wireless routers ask you which encryption standard to use. From most desirable to least, here are
the standards: AES -> WPA2 -> WPA -> 128-bit WEP -> 64-bit WEP -> 40-bit WEP. Any form of WEP security can easily be cracked by
someone with the proper software and knowledge, so use AES, WPA, or WPA2 if available.
Wikipedia bluntly discloses the security risks of public hotspots. Public Wi-Fi is convenient but I wouldn't use it for online finances or other
secure activities.
2. How Windows Tracks Your Behavior ­ and How to Stop It
2.1 How to Securely Delete Data
How to Securely Delete Files --
These programs will also securely delete file slacks or cluster tip areas, space near the end of files that
might contain still-readable data, and empty directory entries, which might contain pointers to non-securely deleted files. Good secure-
deletion programs also handle swap space cleanup and alternate data streams (ADS), two more ways in which data can be exposed. ADS
only applies to computers running the NTFS file system (used since Windows XP and Windows 2000).
How to Securely Delete Email and Address Books ­ Read more about whether you can delete all your obsolete emails in organizational
settings here. Many organizations now keep all email ever sent due to the need to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley law.

How to Securely Delete All Personal Data on Your Computer ­ Even after reformatting a disk or running a secure erasure tool like
Darik's Boot and Nuke it may be possible to recover data through very expensive "forensic analysis." If you have very high-value data and
this is a concern for you, your best option is to run the disk secure-erasure tool -- then physically destroy the disk.
2.2 The Registry Contains Personal Data
Good non-technical overviews of the Registry are at ComputerHope and PC Tools has a good article on how to
alter Windows settings by tweaking the Registry.
For technical readers, Wikipedia has a good overview of the Registry, as does Microsoft.
If you edit your Registry, make a backup beforehand and be sure you know how to restore it. To edit Registry entry keys and their values,
you access Start | Run and then enter the word regedit in the Run Box.
2.3 Windows Tracks All the Web Sites You've Ever Visited
I've simplified the details in this section to make the discussion accessible to non-technical readers.
There is third Registry location that may keep lists of web addresses. This is under the key hierarchy Url History -> ZoneMap -> Domains.
The web sites listed here are not ones you have visited! They are kept in the Registry as part of Internet Explorer's zoned domain security.
(See IE's zones by entering IE, then Tools | Internet Options | Security. The four icons represent four Internet security zones.)
The offensive web sites are placed there by anti-spyware products that restrict access to those web sites according to IE's security design.
Find more on zoned security and how and why these web sites are in your Registry.
In addition to web sites visited, the index.dat files track recently-used files and documents, your search requests, and cookies.

2.4 Windows Leaves Your Personal Information in its Temporary Files

The best source of further information on these temporary files and cache areas are in the descriptions provided by the programs that clear
them out. This description of the commercial product Privacy Eraser Pro gives a very complete idea of the kinds of information Windows
and Internet Explorer leave on your hard drive.
2.5 Your "Most Recently Used" Lists Show What You're Doing
Here is Microsoft's technical article on MRU lists.
2.6 Product Registration Information May Be Hard to Change
You can find whether entering a null product registration is permitted by reading the product license. Most products have a license file
named either license.txt or eula.txt that describe the terms of product installation and support.
Free and open source products usually don't require registration from either a legal or functional standpoint. They offer big advantages if
you're concerned about protecting your privacy.
2.7 File "Properties" Expose Personal Data
This discussion avoids minutiae about the Properties and hidden information Microsoft Office retains on documents as it all becomes very
detailed. This paper is written for non-technical readers, and I believe the best advice for them is -- if this area concerns them -- to avoid
the issue entirely by using OpenOffice. Other free file-compatible Office replacements include Abiword for word processing and Gnumeric
for spreadsheets.
The free Remove Hidden Data Tool from Microsoft has qualifications and limitations that are omitted in the interests of readability. Read
Microsoft's description for more information.
Tips from an independent source on how to manage Office metadata are here.
This article published by Microsoft gives their view of hidden information and offers useful background and tips.
2.8 Microsoft Embeds Secret Identifiers in Your Documents
Good introductions to GUIDs are at Wikipedia and here. Microsoft's technical guide to how their software generates GUIDs is here.
GUIDs were discovered in Microsoft products in 1999. The company hadn't told anyone about them previously. You can trace the
controversy when the GUIDs were first discovered through New York Times articles such as this one, this, this, this, and this. In spite of all
the controversy, Microsoft continues to embed GUIDs in all documents customers create -- without the informed consent of those


2.9 Chart of Tracking Technologies
I developed the chart of tracking technologies for Windows and Internet Explorer from information on the web sites of the vendors of
cleansing tools (both free and commercial). The tools themselves also do a good job of listing what they cleanse in their program panels.
3. How to Protect Your Privacy When Using the Internet
3.1 Limit the Personal Information You Give Out

MSNBC's excellent web site "Privacy Lost" offers highly readable articles on how privacy is being destroyed and why this matters.
I cite books in the text rather than web sites for those who want to learn about how "privacy is power" because the subject requires broad
background. One can't understand the vast data brokering industry or the implications of government surveil ance otherwise.
The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse compiles comprehensive statistics on data breaches in the United States. (The figure of 162 million
personal records being lost or stolen during 2007 is from that organization and is confirmed in Time magazine's December 31st 2007 issue. )
Over 216 million personal records have been compromised over the past three years in the U.S.. It's incredible that it is still legal to buy and
sell social security numbers in the U.S. and that this trade is unregulated.
This article alerts users to the dangers of "privacy" agreements. This guide takes a negative view of web and corporate Privacy Policies due
to verifiable corporate behavior.
This article tells how students are rethinking the costs of posting to MySpace and Facebook as they come to understand the public uses of
"their" information. More about the downside of living an Internet social life is in "Friends Don't Let Friends Post on MySpace: Posting on
Networking Sites is Like a Tattoo ­ but Worse
." Read about how posting personal information can lead to job loss or career damage here,
here and here. "Say Everything" postulates a generation gap between those under 25 and who post the most intimate details of their lives
online, versus those who are older and resist giving out personal information.
This article illustrates how to (try to) protect your privacy when using MySpace, Facebook, and LinkedIn.
This article discusses how Facebook leverages your data through personalized data aggregation.
Facebook is typical of many web sites in that its users give up rights to their data when posting it online. Right at the top of their Privacy
Policy page
Facebook says "You should have control over your personal information." {boldface in original}. Yet the fine print of their
Privacy Policy and Terms of Use directly contradicts this.
Facebook users grant Facebook an irrevocable, perpetual license to all of "their" content, plus they grant Facebook the rights to give that
data to third parties and combine it with other data --
From Facebook's Terms of Use (quoted from their web site in Nov 2007) -- "By posting User Content to any part of the Site, you
automatically grant, and you represent and warrant that you have the right to grant, to the Company an irrevocable, perpetual,
non-exclusive, transferable, fully paid, worldwide license (with the right to sublicense) to use, copy, publicly perform, publicly
display, reformat, translate, excerpt (in whole or in part) and distribute such User Content for any purpose on or in connection with
the Site or the promotion thereof, to prepare derivative works of, or incorporate into other works, such User Content, and to grant
and authorize sublicenses of the foregoing."

From Facebook's Privacy Policy (quoted from their web site in Nov 2007) -- "Facebook may also collect information about you
from other sources, such as newspapers, blogs, instant messaging services, and other users of the Facebook service through the
operation of the service (eg. photo tags) in order to provide you with more useful information and a more personalised experience.
By using Facebook, you are consenting to have your personal data transferred to and processed in the United States."

And of course, Facebook adds -- "...We reserve the right to change our Privacy Policy and our Terms of Use at any time."
Social networking sites are like the "big three" credit card companies in that, while they are free-market corporations, there are a small group
of them that provide a service fundamental to "normal life," as defined by those under in their twenties and teens. They should therefore be
subject to federal privacy regulation in the same manner as the credit companies.
"Even the U.S. government is researching the harvesting of personal data from social networking sites for public surveillance. "
More on how the U.S. government is working on incorporating social network profiles into their surveillance activities can be found here,
here, here, and here.
3.2 Don't Let Web Sites Track You
I've simplified this discussion by leaving out cookie details like first-party versus third-party, session versus cross-session, whether the
cookies include personally-identifiable information, etc.
This Wikipedia article defines cookies and describes other tracking technologies. CookieCentral gives background on cookies and advice on
how to best manage them. Here's an article on "How Web Server Cookies Threaten Your Privacy."

Cookie-like tracking mechanisms include web bugs, Flash cookies, third-party local shared objects, and other more esoteric tracking
vehicles. I've left them out as they're a bit technical for this guide and are not as widely used.
3.3 Email Privacy
"There is evidence that the United States government either scans or compiles data about every email sent in the country." ­
Large-scale surveillance is possible because all traffic is digitized and passes through a limited number of master "trunk" switches, where it
can be scanned.
The federal programs variously referred to as Carnivore or Echelon and Total Information Awareness or Terrorist
Information Awareness
keep changing their names but are appear to be alive and operating. Security expert Bruce Schneier offers good
articles on current government surveillance programs, as do Wired magazine's Threat Level web site, Glenn Greenwald at Salon, and the
Raw Story.
This article describes the Congressional testimony of Mark Klein, a retired AT&T technician who says he helped connect a device in 2003
that diverted and copied onto a government supercomputer every call, e-mail, and Internet site access on AT&T lines.
This article and this
detail Klein's claims. Former National Security Agency analyst Russell Tice's statements verify Klein's. This article describes the
AT&T documents provided by Klein and concludes surveillance must be both domestic and comprehensive. This article asserts that the
National Security Agency asked telecommunications companies for digital surveillance data seven months prior to the 9/11 attack.
This article and this one describe the several legislative attempts to secure immunity for telecommunications companies that gave private
digital communications to the government illegally. Proposing telecomm immunity is itself the best proof of the il egality of the government's
domestic surveillance program.

James Risen's many New York Times articles detail massive, illegal electronic domestic spying by the government. They have been
collected into his book State of War.
Along with Mr. Risen, USA Today's articles are generally credited with blowing the covers off the domestic surveillance story. President
Bush called such disclosures "disgraceful" and recommends prosecution of whistleblowers through the Espionage Act of 1917. He claims
publicly the right to open anyone's U.S. mail without judicial oversight, directly contravening "settled law" on the question dating all the way
back to the early 1800's. Perhaps the major email clients don't offer built-in universal, standardized encryption at government direction.
Here's a chronology of major articles on the government's digital surveillance.
Find out about PGP and S/MIME encryption options for Outlook email here. Find out more about Thunderbird email encryption here.
Those who require the highest level of security in their communications might consider steganography, hiding text within images. Download
the free steganography program ImageHide.
Two more tips for achieving the highest level of email safety ­ (1) turn off Outlook's email "Preview" feature, which automatically opens every
email for you (2) turn off HTML rendering in email, which runs web page code on your computer.
3.4 Web Surfing Privacy
This chronology tracks the key events of the government's web surveillance. This article tells how the Bush administration seeks to forestall
public oversight of its web surveillance program through the state secrets doctrine. National Intelligence Director Mike McConnell admitted
to the existence of the illegal ISP-based surveil ance program
in the same presentation to Congress in which he claimed that admitting its
existence means that "some Americans are going to die."
Read about the Bush administration's proposals to force ISPs to keep two years of records for all their customers' Internet activities here and
here. The congressional skirmish over these repeatedly-introduced proposals has been going on for several years.
AT&T/Yahoo changed its "privacy" policy in mid-2006 to say that it owns all customer web use records and can do with them whatever it
likes. Here's a quote from the AT&T Privacy Policy for AT&T Yahoo! and Video Services dated June 23, 2006 ­
"While your Account Information may be personal to you, these records constitute business records that are owned by AT&T...
AT&T may disclose such records to protect its legitimate business interests, safeguard others, or respond to legal process."

More on how AT&T asserts ownership of customers' Internet data and what it means is here, here, here, and here.
Recognizing that a free society is incompatible with corporate tracking of web activities, privacy advocates are recommending a "Do Not
Track List,
" similar to the national "Do Not Call List" now maintained by the government for phone calls.
3.5 Search Privacy
Read here and here for overviews of search engine privacy issues. Find more tips on search engine privacy here and here.
"The federal government has demanded search records from major search engines like Google, AOL, Yahoo, and MSN." -- There
have been many press articles on this topic and the twists and turns in events. For starters, see here, here, here, here and here. The Bush
administration states it needs the search records to determine the amount of child pornography on the Internet, but as commentators point
, that appears to be a red herring -- there are many more effective ways that could be determined. Most analysts conclude this activity
fits a pattern of citizen surveillance and data mining conducted by the federal government.


More on the AOL debacle here, here, here and here. The AOL scandal was a wake-up call to those who didn't understand how compiling
many small bits of information could ultimately identify and harm "anonymous" individuals. "Why `Anonymous' Data Sometimes Isn't"
explores how little it takes to breach the supposed anonymity of tracking data.
4. Windows Wisdom
The goal of this paper is to help Windows users achieve greater security and privacy. It is intended to be objective and neutral towards
vendors and products. This guide helps users better control their systems through increased understanding and downloading and installing
free software tools.
It accepts as a given that the reader uses Windows, so it doesn't discuss competing systems like Linux or Apple OS X. It tells users can
they can replace parts of the Microsoft stack but discusses these decisions as tactical solutions, rather than as an overall strategy. For
example, it mentions OpenOffice as a possible replacement for Microsoft Office, but strictly within the context of addressing Office's privacy
This guide does not discuss why Windows has security and privacy issues. There are important design and technical reasons but they fall
outside the scope of this paper. Discussing them would only detract from the goal of helping Windows users achieve greater security and


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